Las Reformas Económicas de China y la Geopolítica del Petróleo: un análisis de política exterior a la luz de la cuestión energética

Resumo

El objetivo de este artículo es, a partir de la evolución de la estructura energética de China, evaluar los distintos delineamientos de su política exterior y las implicaciones geopolíticas de su diplomacia. Después de dilucidar antecedentes históricos, el recorte temporal empleado será enfático a partir de 1993 – cuando el país asiático se convierte en importador neto de petróleo – hasta años recientes, mostrando los impactos y desdoblamientos de décadas de reformas de apertura, modernización económica y transformaciones productivas. La hipótesis operada en este trabajo es que la sinergia entre la evolución de los lazos bilaterales chinos y su respectiva política para el sector energético (específicamente el petrolero) se encuentra correlacionada en parte al empleo estratégico de su poderío económico para mitigar vulnerabilidades externas a su ascenso . Como objetos de consulta para validación analítica empírica y sustantiva, haré uso de informes de agencias de energía y de las propias firmas petroleras, y también datos secundarios. La conclusión encontrada es que la expansión económica china en continentes como América Latina, África y Oriente Medio posee un fuerte condicionante directo en su dependencia por recursos naturales, con la energía, en particular, dictando el tono para una diplomacia más asertiva.

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Biografia do Autor

Rafael Shoenmann de Moura, Instituto de Estudos Sociais e Políticos (IESP) - Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ)
Doutorando pelo Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência Política do Instituto de Estudos Sociais e Políticos (IESP-UERJ), onde é Bolsista FAPERJ Nota 10. Mestre pela mesma instituição. Graduado em Ciências Sociais pela Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (2013) e ex-graduando em Economia pela Universidade Cândido Mendes (UCAM). Pesquisador integrante do Núcleo de Estudos do Empresariado, Instituições e Capitalismo (NEIC) e do INCT/PPED, também é vinculado ao Laboratório de Estudos em Economia Política da China (LabChina-UFRJ) e à Associação Latino-Americana de Ciência Política (ALACIP), onde desempenha as funções de consultor e secretário assistente. Estuda principalmente os temas de economia política; variedades de capitalismo; capacidades estatais para o desenvolvimento; instituições; economia chinesa; e relações entre Estado e mercado. Membro do corpo editorial do periódico eletrônico “Revista Ponto de Vista: Perspectivas sobre o Desenvolvimento”. Também ministrou, no âmbito do estágio docência, as disciplinas “Desenvolvimento do Estado no Leste Asiático” e “A Ásia nas Relações Internacionais e Estratégicas”, respectivamente pela Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) e pela Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF). Organizou ainda, junto com os professores José Szwako e Paulo D’Avila, o livro “Estado e Sociedade no Brasil: a obra de Renato Boschi e Eli Diniz” (Rio de Janeiro: Ideia D, 2016).

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Publicado
30-12-2018
Como Citar
Moura, R. S. de. (2018). Las Reformas Económicas de China y la Geopolítica del Petróleo: un análisis de política exterior a la luz de la cuestión energética. Carta Internacional, 13(3). https://doi.org/10.21530/ci.v13n3.2018.819
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Artigos